brace your hand on patient’s nose.
Fan through eye in transverse and sag
can see vitreous bleed retinal detachment icp-optic nerve sheath lens dislocation retro-orbital bleed
Key question, does the ocular anatomy look normal
More and more, it looks like 5.7 is the magic cutoff (Crit Care 2008;12:150)
If the optic nerve sheath is >5mm at a point 3 mm behind the globe, then there is increased icp (ACAD EMERG MED d April 2003, Vol. 10, No. 4)
(2nd study Tayal VS Ann Emerg Med 2006) Another study (Emerg Med J 2007;24:251)
Third Study (Annals of Emergency Medicine 2007;49(4):508-514)
The sensitivity for the ultrasonography in detecting elevated intracranial pressure was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 68% to 100%) and specificity was 63% (95% CI 50% to 76%). another ONSD uts study case control methods and weird endpoint make this one less compelling, but it bore out the technique they used a 5.77 mm cutpoint (Inten Care Med 2007;33:1704) Confirmation with real ICP measurements ((2008) Academic Emergency Medicine 15 (2) , 201204) another real time showed nerve sheath but not nerve reflected ICP (Inten Care Med 2008;34:2062) Reply to Copetti and Cattarossi Thomas Geeraerts1 , Olivier Bergès2, Sybille Merceron1, Yoann Launey1, Dan Benhamou1, Bernard Vigué1 and Jacques Duranteau1 (1) AP-HP, Département dAnesthésie-Réanimation Chirurgicale, Hôpital Bicêtre, Université Paris-Sud, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bicêtre, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France(2) Service dImagerie Médicale, Unité Ultrasons, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75019 Paris, France Thomas GeeraertsEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org Accepted: 28 February 2009 Published online: 15 April 2009 Without Abstract This reply refers to the comment available at: doi:10.1007/s00134-009-1494-4 We thank Drs. Copetti and Cattarossi for their comments. We however disagree with the assumption that our results [1, 2] are related to artifacts. Using ocular sonography, the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) can be measured on coronal view (with the probe being vertical) or on axial view (horizontal probe). On axial view, the optic nerve sheath can appear fusiform, but not as a result of an acoustic artifact arising from the lamina cribrosa, but rather from unintended reconstruction when using an outdated ultrasound system, or from a meningeal shadow when the nerve does not run strictly straight. Blehar et al.  showed that measurements in the horizontal axis are consistently larger than those in the vertical axis. This could be related to a nonspherical ONSD, but also in some cases to this shadow. This discrepancy could become an issue when performing only one measurement in the horizontal axis, probably as Copetti and Cattarossi did. In both of our studies, this point has been considered. For each eye, we performed two measurements, one in coronal and one in axial view, the average being retained as the ONSD value. Nevertheless, to control this point, we performed an additional analysis of our second study . We have now separated vertical and horizontal axis measurements of ONSD. We found a similar and significant relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) and ONSD, with r = 0.65 (P < 0.0001) for horizontal ONSD and r = 0.71 (P < 0.0001) for vertical ONSD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the detection of raised ICP (>20 mmHg) show very similar patterns and best ONSD cutoff values for vertical, horizontal, and both averaged ONSD (5.88, 5.86, and 5.86 mm, respectively) (Fig. 1).Fig. 1 Receiver operating characteristic curves with respect to raised intracranial pressure (>20 mmHg) for optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured in vertical and horizontal axis, and for averaged horizontal and vertical axis. Curves are not significantly different Moreover, we also disagree with the assumption that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sonographic ONSD values strongly differ. We recently performed a study in 38 traumatic brain injury patients with invasive ICP monitoring, measuring ONSD with MRI . Interestingly, we found a strong relationship between ICP and ONSD (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001) and a best cutoff value for raised ICP (5.8 mm) very close to the values obtained using ocular sonography. We do not support the fact that color Doppler imaging of retrobulbar arteries can help in the ONSD measurement. There is no justification in the literature for this statement. Figure 2 is not convincing. The left cursor (mark 1) is 12 mm too lateral, resulting in a falsely enlarged ONSD. This could be related to the probe used by Copetti and Cattarossi. The frequency of the probe has to be superior to 7.5 MHz for enough precision . Such a probe was used in our studies, but not in Copetti and Cattarossis work. Finally, ONSD values presented in their comments are not in the correct units. ONSD are probably 5.9 and 3.5 mm rather than 59 and 35 mm. We strongly believe that the method we applied is appropriate. Data appear to be controlled, reproducible, and robust. Larger studies are certainly needed to confirm the accuracy and real-life feasibility of this method. This measure appears, however, to be interesting to rule out raised ICP. A new study showing accuracy at 5.2 and rapid normalization when ICP is brought down (Neurocritical Care Dec 2009) Results Ninety-four ONSD measurements were analyzed. 5.2 mm proved to be the optimal ONSD cut-off point to predict raised ICP (>20 mmHg) with 93.1% sensitivity (95% CI: 77.299%) and 73.85% specificity (95% CI: 61.584%). ONSDICP correlation coefficient was 0.7042 (95% CI for r = 0.58500.7936). The median interobserver ONSD difference was 0.25 mm. CSF drainage to control elevated ICP caused a rapid and significant reduction of ONSD (from 5.89 ± 0.61 to 5 ± 0.33 mm, P < 0.01).Conclusion Our investigation confirms the reliability of optic nerve ultrasound as a non-invasive method to detect elevated ICP in intracranial hemorrhage patients. ONSD measurements proved to have a good reproducibility. ONSD changes almost concurrently with CSF pressure variations. Emerg Med J. 2010 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]Ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter in patients with a clinical suspicion of raised intracranial pressure.Emergency Medicine, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK.Abstract Background To assess if ultrasound measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) can accurately predict the presence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and acute pathology in patients in the emergency department. Methods This 3-month prospective observational study used ultrasound to measure the ONSD in adult patients who required CT from the emergency department. The mean ONSD from both eyes was measured using a 7.5 MHz ultrasound probe on closed eyelids. A mean ONSD value of >0.5 cm was taken as positive. Two radiologists independently assessed CT scans from patients in the study population for signs of raised ICP and signs of acute pathology (cerebrovascular accident, subarachnoid, subdural or extradural haemorrhage and tumour). Specificity, sensitivity and kappa values, for interobserver variability between reporting radiologists, were generated for the study data. Results In all, 26 patients were enrolled into the study. The ONSD measurement was 100% specific (95% CI 79% to 100%) and 86% sensitive (95% CI 42% to 99%) for raised ICP. For any acute intracranial abnormality the value of ONSD was 100% specific (95% CI 76% to 100%) and 60% sensitive (95% CI 27% to 86%). kappa Values were 0.91 (95% CIs 0.73 to 1) for identification of raised ICP on CT and 0.84 (95% CIs 0.62 to 1) for any acute pathology on CT, between the radiologists. Conclusions This study shows that ultrasound measurement of ONSD is sensitive and specific for raised ICP in the emergency department. Further observational studies are needed but this emerging technique could be used to focus treatment in unstable patients. Review Article (Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2011;55:644) prospective obs (emerg med j 2011;28:679) finally the article that shows with treatment, ONSD resolves to normal (J Trauma 2011;71:779) Another study in a neurocritical care unit (Neurocrit Care 2011;15:506)
Retinal and Vitreous Detachment
this post from ALIEM has it all (Acad Emerg Med 2002;9:791 and Annals Emerg Med 2005;45(1):97) Will remain tethered at the optic nerve (as opposed to vitreous detachment) Macula off not as emergent Mac on is an EMERGENCY ACEP News Article By Nate Teismann, M.D. , Sachita Shah, M.D. , and Arun Nagdev, M.D.
After reading this article, the physician should be able to:
- Understand the normal ultrasound anatomy of the eye, specifically the location of the retina.
- Know which probe is needed for ultrasound scans of the eye, and the method to accurately and safely perform the exam.
- Visualize an example of a retinal detachment diagnosed by ultrasound.
Acute retinal detachment is a sight-threatening condition requiring urgent diagnosis and treatment. The most common type of retinal detachment (RD) is termed “rhegmatogenous” (from the Greek rhegma, meaning “tear”), which refers to a break or tear in the retinal epithelium. The majority of these cases result from age-related vitreous detachment, which can create tiny, horseshoe-shaped holes that allow fluid to pass into and accumulate in the subretinal space.1 In patients who are younger, direct trauma is the most common etiology.2 Less common types of RD include “tractional,” in which the vitreous contracts and pulls the neural retina off the underlying pigmented layer but does not cause a break in the epithelium, and “exudative,” in which serous fluid accumulates beneath the retina because of inflammatory conditions such as sarcoid uveitis.3 Regardless of the cause, RD must be diagnosed and treated rapidly to prevent monocular vision loss. Traditionally, diagnosis of RD has relied on direct examination of the retina using an ophthalmoscope. However, a number of factors may make this difficult or impossible, including 1) contraindications to the use of mydriatics such as narrow-angle glaucoma or the need to follow pupillary exams in a head-injured patient; 2) significant periorbital trauma or soft tissue swelling; and 3) inability to visualize the posterior segment of the eye because of hyphema, lens opacification, or vitreous hemorrhage. In such cases, bedside ultrasound is critical to the timely diagnosis of RD. Already in use for decades by ophthalmologists, ocular ultrasound is a relatively recent addition to emergency ultrasonography. Since 2002, a number of studies have demonstrated that emergency physicians using general-purpose, high-frequency transducers can accurately identify a variety of ocular pathologies, including retinal detachment.4,5,6 Bedside ultrasound is an indispensable tool for evaluating this potentially vision-threatening condition. Procedure Here is a simple mnemonic to help you with each CASE of potential retinal detachment: 1) Close and cover the eye; 2) place the transducer in the axial plane; 3) scan the retina; and 4) evaluate the periphery. 1) Place the ultrasound machine at the head of the bed with the patient supine. Ask the patient to close his or her eyes, and place a liberal amount of gel over the eyelid. A bio-occlusive dressing may be used to shield the eye from the gel. 2) Gently place the high-frequency linear (7.5-10 MHz) transducer over the patient’s closed eye.
In order to obtain a stable image, the fourth and fifth digits of the examiner’s hand should rest against the bridge of the patient’s nose. The probe should be placed in a transverse orientation to scan in the axial anatomic plane. The probe marker should face the patient’s right side, which will correspond to the marker on the ultrasound screen (see image 1). 3) Carefully scan the eye for evidence of pathology. The normal retina is continuous with the other posterior elements of the globe and is not visible as a distinct structure. With retinal detachment, fluid enters the potential space beneath the retinal epithelium and accumulates, forcing the retina away from the outer surface of the globe. Sonographically, retinal detachment is seen as a thick, undulating, hyperechoic membrane that appears to have been lifted off the posterior surface of the eye (see images 2A and 2B). 4) Make sure to evaluate the entire globe in order to avoid missing a small RD at the periphery of the retina. Because the anterior-most attachment of the retinal epithelium is just lateral to the ciliary bodies, care must be taken to interrogate its entire surface. This may require asking the patient to gaze upward and downward while tilting the transducer accordingly to achieve adequate visualization. Findings In general, RD will appear as a prominent, continuous linear density rising from the fundus. Depending on the timing and severity of the detachment, the retinal separation may be visible only as a small peripheral convexity or, with an extensive detachment, as a complex array of bright, intersecting lines (see image 3A). Because the retina is fixed firmly to the optic disc, even a complete detachment will often appear tethered to this point, giving a “funnel” appearance (see image 3B). Differentiation From Other Ocular Pathology Other ocular processes may appear similar to RD on sonography, especially posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and vitreous hemorrhage (VH). PVD may also appear as a hyperechoic linear density that has been lifted off the posterior globe; however, it typically appears as a thinner and smoother structure compared to RD. VH typically appears as nonlayering, low-level echoes within the vitreous body that are unattached to periphery of the globe (see image 4). Because it can be difficult even for the expert ocular sonographer to differentiate these diagnoses from RD, we recommend prompt follow-up in any case with equivocal findings, especially when clinical features (e.g., photopsia) suggest RD. Other findings such as retinal breaks or tears–which, as already addressed, are often the inciting event leading to RD–may be seen with ultrasound and are visible as small, echodense tufts elevated off the fundus.8 Given their small size, however, these structures typically require specialized ophthalmologic transducers for visualization. Thus, we do not believe this diagnosis should be considered within the scope of emergency sonography. Discussion Ocular ultrasound is emerging as a promising technique to diagnose RD. Sonography is especially helpful in cases where an adequate eye exam is impossible, or when the emergency physician does not have the luxury of time or expertise to perform a thorough, dilated fundoscopic exam. If RD is identified, the patient should be referred to an ophthalmologist on an emergent basis, ideally within 24 hours. Because the sensitivity of this technique in the hands of emergency physicians using general-purpose portable ultrasound machines has yet to be determined, we recommend that any cases with high-risk clinical features, such as the presence of flashes of light or vision loss, also be referred on an urgent basis regardless of sonographic findings. With this simple guide to ocular ultrasound, we hope more physicians will learn and incorporate ultrasound into their evaluation of ocular complaints in the emergency setting. We believe that ocular ultrasound is fast, safe, and easy to teach and learn. We hope you will remember to pick up the ultrasound probe for each CASE of potential retinal detachment you encounter. References
- D’Amico DJ. Clinical practice. Primary retinal detachment. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(22):2346-54.
- Byer NE. Natural history of posterior vitreous detachment with early management as the premier line of defense against retinal detachment. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(9):1503-13; discussion 1513-4.
- Gariano RF, Kim C. Evaluation and management of suspected retinal detachment. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(7):1691-8.
- Blaivas M, Theodoro D, Sierzenski PR. A study of bedside ocular ultrasonography in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(8): 791-9.
- Elia J, Borger R. Diagnosis of retinal detachment in the ED with ultrasonography. J Emerg Med. 2008. (Article in Press) Available at: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18547771
- Winter K, Baker T. Images in emergency medicine. Retinal de-tachment. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;50(1):89, 95.
- DiBernardo CW, Greenberg, EF. Ophthalmic Ultrasound: A Diagnostic Atlas. 2nd ed. Thieme Medical Publishers; 2007.
- Lorenzo-Carrero J, Perez-Flores I, Cid-Galano M, et al. B-scan ultrasonography to screen for retinaltears in acute symptomatic age-related posterior vitreous detach-ment. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(1):94-9.