Appearance (Alert, Anxious), Work of Breathing (tachypnea, retractions), Circulation (normal perfusion)
APAP dose in kiddies <100 kg add a 0 to weight in pounds for the dose
Infared ear temp is no good (INFRARED EAR THERMOMETRY COMPARED WITH RECTAL THERMOMETRY IN CHILDREN: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Craig, J.V., et al, Lancet 360:603 August 24, 2002)
Normal Resp Rates
Heliox improves moderate to severe RSV (Pediatrics 2002:109)
Head injury can cause hypotension in peds patients (AM J Surg 184, p.555, 2002)
Age/4 +4=tube size, 3 x size=depth
I-up to 15%
II-15-30% will have tachycardia, increased RR, but will maintain urine output
III-30-40% compensated but decreased UO, may have mental status changes
IV->40% decreased BP
conjunctivitis in newborns if >48 hrs after birth=gonorrhea, chlamydia, strep, staph or herpes. If patient was in hospital, also consider pseudomonas
Test EOM, should be pain free in preorbital. Vision must be normal. Can differentiate with CT with axial and coronal thin cuts.
If an emergency, always treat.
All states allow minors to consent to diagnosis and treatment for STDs or drug abuse without parenteral consent Most states also allow minors to consent for pregnancy related care.
Emancipated minor definitions vary by state
Eats too much (obesity)
Thrombosis of renal arteries
Endocrine (CAH or Hyperaldosteronism)
Stenosis of renal artery or coarctation of aorta
Ingestion of toxin
Full bevy of primary teeth by age 2
Secondary teeth are often heralded by the 1st molars (6 yr molars)
Eruption cysts-blue black, sometimes blood filled cyst over new tooth, bengin.
Teething can cause fever.
II-through enamel and dentin, will see yellow dentin in enamel
III-to pulp of tooth, will see bleeding
IV-involve the root, need x-ray to dx
Treat class I with filing, II and III should be covered with dental foil or commercial coating and sent to see a dentist within 24 hours (12 hours for <12 y/o)
Intrusion-tooth impacted into alveolar socket
Extrusion-vertically dislodged from the socket
Lingual Luxation-displacement of the tooth towards the tongue
Labial Luxation-towards the lips
Lateral Luxation-occurs within the plane of the tooth.
Avulsion is a tooth knocked completely out of the socket. Put in mouth of parent or child, or hanks solution, or milk or saline. Never reimplant a avulsed primary tooth as ankylosis, a bony fusing of tooth to the ridge may occur
Permanent tooth luxations need immediate treatment.
ask child which finger he picks his nose with
uncommon after five years old
can track to mediastinum or carotid or jugular vein
quinsy, abscess pushes uvula to other side of mouth. red, bulging soft palette.
The Crying Infant:
A Checklist to Consider
The crying infant represents a challenge to the emergency physician
to evaluate a disruptive, noncommunicative patient in obvious
distress. In addition to more serious etiologies, many common minor
illnesses need to be excluded by a careful history and physical
Areas to consider in the PE:
Fundi Retinal hemorrhages
Cornea Fluroscein dye for corneal abrasion
Inspect for foreign body
Abdomen/Rectal Inspect for anal fissure
Test stool for blood (e.g. intussusception)
Genitalia Inguinal hernia
Digits Hair tourniquet
Urine Tox screen for cocaine metabolites
CAN URINE CLARITY EXCLUDE THE DIAGNOSIS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION?
Bulloch, B., et al, Pediatrics 106(5, Part 1): November 2000
METHODS: This study, from the Children’s HospitalMedicalCenter in Cincinnati, examined the utility of urine clarity as an indicator of urinary tract infection (UTI) in a convenience sample of 159 previously healthy patients aged 4 weeks to 19 years for whom urine cultures were ordered during emergency department evaluation. An aliquot of urine was placed in a red-topped blood tube and held 1cm from a white background containing text printed in an 11-point black font. Ability to read the text through the urine sample, under fluorescent lighting, with the same clarity as through a tube containing water was considered consistent with clear urine and, consequently, absence of a UTI. Samples were tested by two independent observers.
RESULTS: Urine cultures were positive in 18% of the patients, while just under one-third of the specimens were judged to be cloudy. The sensitivity and specificity of urine clarity for UTI were 90% and 82 respectively, and the positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs were 5.1 and 0.1. The sensitivity and specificity of other urine screening tests were 83% and 95%, respectively, for dipstick testing for leukocyte esterase, 28% and 98% for urinary nitrites 86% and 79% for pyuria (defined as at least 5 WBC/HPF) on urine microscopy, and 93% and 40% for microscopy positive for bacteria UTI was confirmed by culture in three patients with clear urine
CONCLUSIONS: Although the presence of clear urine on visual inspection does not definitively exclude UTI, it appears to be a rapid, inexpensive and relatively reliable bedside screening test I/Q R 4/4 – J 3/4
Top Ten Peds Issues
0-28 Days c a fever >38
Listeria, enterococcus, Group-B Strep, Staph
CBC, Blood Cx, Urine, Spinal Tap, Admit
Ampicillin to hit listeria and enterococcus
Cefotaxime for everything else
28-90 Days c a fever >38
(Peds 94; 390-396, 1994)
Term infant, no perinatal abx, no disease, not in hospital longer than mom, well appearing s source
WBC not <5 nor >15
Ab Bands <1500
UA <10 WBC per HPF
Stool (if sx) <5 WBC per field
Can send home if no high risk criteria
Sensitivity 92%, Spec 50%, NPV 98.9%
Boston (J Peds 120, 22-27, 1992)
No immunizations in past 48 hours, no antibiotics in past 48 hours, not dehydrated, well appearing, no signs of infection.
CSF <10 wbcs/cc
Chest film: no infiltrate
Spec 94.6%, no sensitivity or NPV????
90 Days to 36 Months c >39 (102.2)
Occult Bacteremia (3-5%)
Urine: Boys <6 months old if circed
<1 yr old if uncirced
Girls <2 yrs old
1 Rochester Ceftriaxone, send home, with follow-up
>105.8, even then, if they look good do nothing
2. Resp Disease
Asthma, Bronchiolitis, Croup, Pneumonia
To get a good exhalation, squeeze an infants chest between your hands
Falls >4 feet if <1 y/o
Falls >10 feet if >1 y/o
Change in Mental Status persistent to ED
Focal Neurological Signs
Persistent Vomiting-> 5 episodes or an episode >6 hrs post-injury
Irritability or behavior change
Seizure-(three types contact seizure, immediate, early, late)
<3 months of age
>2 episodes vomiting
Hematoma > 2cm
Suspect Child Abuse
LOC < 1min
Diastatic separation of sutures, most commonly lamdoid
Depressed-getCT and admit
Basilar-Get CT scan
Infants can have skull fractures even in falls less than 3 feet. The parietal bone is the most often fractured with the linear type being the most common. (Annals 37:1, 2001) 15-30% of linear skull fractures will have underlying injury. If there is a tear through the dura underlying the skull fracture, a growing skull fracture can result
Subdural-most common 8-10%, 75% venous
Epidural-2-3%, 75% middle meningeal
Buckle or Torus
Bowing or Bending
hairline fractures of distal third of tibia. May not show up on x-ray. Hold knee and twist ankle in opposite direction, may need bone scan
Abrasion, Fx, Lacs
Miliaria (heat rash)
Milia (sebaceous gland occlusion)
Transient Neonatal Pustular Milanosis-present at birth
Erythema Toxicum-not born c it, 1st day of life, looks like flea bites, disappears by 1 week
Usually seen in the winter and the spring in 1-14 y/o.
1-3 week incubation period, infectious 2 days before and 5 days after rash 1. Skin Superinfection 2. Pneumonia 3. Hepatitis 4. Pancreatitis 5. Encephalitis
One of the few rashes present in the scalp, meningococcemia should not be in the scalp. Kids with varicella before 1 year may have a second outbreak and are higher risk of shingles. Usually leukopenia. May see subclinical hepatitis.
Complications of varicella: death (data prior to 1995)approximately 100 per year, 84% immunocompetent patients; typically due to encephalitis or Reyes syndrome; bacterial superinfectionmost common complication; may present with adenitis; most often due to Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes; necrotizing fasciitis rare sequela; herpes zoster 9% of children with shingles had varicella in first year; central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctionacute cerebellar ataxia most common neurologic complication; elevated protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); admit to hospital for 1 to 2 days of observation; resolves spontaneously; encephalitis and cerebritis also reported (viral antigen in CSF); varicella pneumoniaadmit child and treat with acyclovir; Reyes syndromerare since vaccines available; hemorrhagic complicationsvery rare; patient cannot terminate viremia; unable to make interferon; changes in T cell subsets; 70% mortality; hemorrhage in all organs; thrombocytopenia rash looks like purpura fulminans (Audiodigest)
Motrin can give necrotizing fasciitis, aspirin can give Reye, use Tylenol and benadryl. In 1st trimester, ¼ of fetuses will get limb deformations, 2nd trimester is no problem, 3rd trimester 5 days prior and 2 days post delivery can get Varicella encephalitis
Erythema Multiforme Minor and Major
Seen in 0-20 y/o, usually in winter/spring. Prodrome of high fever and URI sx. Erythematous macules and papules which become confluent and turn coppery-colored. Begins in hairline and moves down the body. Koplik spots, conjunctivitis, photophobia, cough, and pneumonia
German Measles (Rubella)
5-25 y/o, usually in spring. Prodrome is mild URI sx. Maculopapular rash which becomes pinpoint. Begins on face and migrates to the trunk. Tender retroauricular, posterior cervical, and occipital lymphadenopathy.
Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)
From parvo B-19, 3-12 y/o or nonimmune adults. Seen in winter/spring. Prodrome of fever and malaise. Macular erythema on face, followed by erythematous macular eruption, then lacy erythema. Rash progresses from face to extremities. Associated with aplastic crisis, hydrops fetalis, popular-purpuric socks syndrome.
Exanthem Subitum (Sixth Disease, Roseola)
0-3 y/o, usually in Spring or Fall. Prodrome of high fever for 3-5 days. Rash of erythematous to pink macules and papules arranged in rosettes on trunk, neck, and proximal extremities. Rash appears as fever resolves.
Disease Day of Fever which Rash Develops
Very Varicella 1st day of Fever, rash develops
Sick Scarlet Fever 2nd
Pts Small Pox 3rd
Must Measles 4th
Take Typhus 5th
Double Dengue 6th
Eggs Enteric Fever 7th
Jill M. Baren, MD, FACEP, FAAP
Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth’s disease)
Other viral exanthems
3. Disease Presentation and Management
Kawasaki’s disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome)
Multisystem vasculitis of unknown etiology. Consider in all children who present with rash and fever but most common under age 4 years. Diagnostic criteria: Fever > 5 days plus (1) bilateral conjunctival injection, (2) Red or fissured lips, red pharynx, or strawberry tongue, (3) Erythema of palms or soles, edema, or desquamation (especially in diaper area), (4) Erythematous rash, nonscaling, possibly morbilliform(5) Cervical lymphadenopathy (>1.5 cm). Other clinical findings: arthralgias, cough, uveitis, sterile pyuria, aseptic meningitis, hepatitis, diarrhea, vomiting, myocarditis, pericarditis, coronary artery aneurysms. Lab findings: thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, elevated ESR. Complication: coronary artery aneurysms. Rx: Aspirin 100 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for 14 days, IV gamma globulin 2 gm/kg once over 12 hours or 400 mg/kg once daily for 4 days, hospitalization for diagnoses and management of possible complications.
b. Erythema multiforme
Common, inflammatory disease with many etiologies including drugs, infections, physical agents, pregnancy, malignancy, and connective tissue disease but in 50% of cases, no etiology found. More common precipitants are HSV (recurrent), EBV, Streptococcal, Mycoplasma, fungal infections; sulfa, penicillin, anticonvulsant drugs. Prodrome malaise, itching, burning, but also asymptomatic. Lesions are polymorphous – red, round maculopapules on hands, feet, extensor surfaces and trunk that appear abruptly. Hallmark is target lesions that evolve over 24 hours. May heal in 1-2 weeks but may last up to a month and there may be changes in pigmentation. Rx eliminate the precipitant if identifiable. No therapy in mild cases, otherwise prednisone and antipruritics. Acyclovir if HSV is the etiology. Can be very severe with blistering forms (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis) and even life threatening.
Common benign skin eruption of unknown etiology (possibly viral) often seen in older children and adolescents and more often in the winter. Herald patch appears first (single oval or round lesion on trunk or extremities that resembles tinea corporis). Followed by eruption of salmon colored papular lesions on trunk and proximal extremities, concentrated in lower abdomen. Surrounded by scaly ring (collarette scale). Numerous lesions on the back appear like “Christmas tree” pattern. Mostly asymptomatic but may be pruritic. Rx- Topical steroids and antihistamines for itching. Sunlight hastens resolution of lesions.
Highly contagious disease spread by respiratory droplets most commonly seen in preschoolers or unvaccinated individuals. Prodrome characterized by harsh cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, photophobia and fever 10-12 days after exposure. Koplik spots are bluish-white spots with a red halo found on the buccal mucosa opposite the premolar teeth. Rash begins on face and spreads to trunk and extremities and is confluent and dark red to purplish (morbilliform). Complications: pneumonia, encephalitis. Rx supportive.
e. Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth’s Disease)
Mild disease that is contagious; caused by parvovirus B19. Seen most often in children ages 5-14 years. Mild prodrome of fever, malaise, sore throat. Facial erythema (slapped cheek) is bright red, bilateral and spares the nasolabial fold and perioral region. There is also a fine fishnet like pattern on the extremities and trunk and a petechial “glove and sock” syndrome as well. Not contagious after rash appears. There may be accompanying arthritis most commonly in the knee. Complications include spontaneous abortion and aplastic anemia. Rx- reassurance, supportive.
Contagious disease produced by streptococcal erythrogenic toxin (Group A beta-hemolytic strain) originating in the pharynx or skin. Most common between the ages of 2-10 years. Sudden onset of fever and pharyngitis with nausea, vomiting, headache and abdominal pain. Oropharynx is bright red with palatal petechiae. Rash begins 1-2 days after other symptoms of illness on neck and face and spreads to trunk and extremities, spares palms and soles. Rash is red and sandpapery. May see Pastia’s lines (linear petechiae) in skin folds and strawberry tongue. Desquamation occurs on palms and soles and may last for several weeks. Can be confirmed with Rapid Strep test (high false negative rate). Rx Benzathine penicillin IM (600,000 units for patients < 60 lbs. and 1.2 million units for > 60 lbs.) or oral 10 day course (125 mg or 250 mg QID). Alternatives are erythromycin or cephalosporins. May also be caused by Staph aureus infection.
Caused by human herpes virus 6 usually in children aged 6 months to 4 years. Sudden onset of high fever (103-106\F) for several days, decreased appetite, mild URI symptoms, febrile seizures, lymphadenopathy. Rash develops as fever subsides and is pale pink, confluent slightly raised papules on trunk and neck. Complications: Associated with febrile seizures. Rx fever control and reassurance.
5. Case conclusion
Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura
Other viral exanthems (infectious mononucleosis)
Disease Presentation and Management
Idiopathic Thromocytopenic Purpura
The most common thrombocytopenic purpura of childhood characterized by a profound deficiency of circulating platelets. 70% of cases have antecedent viral infections 1-4 weeks prior. Acute onset of generalized petechiae, prominent over the legs with mucous membrane hemorrhage in a well appearing patient. Platelet count < 20K, normal hemoglobin and WBCs. Complications: intracranial hemorrhage. Rx excellent prognosis even without therapy. Platelet transfusion only for life threatening hemorrhage. IV gamma globulin may induce remission, corticosteroids shorten the acute phase. Chronic form is uncommon.
Vasculitis seen in children ages 2-10 years characterized by palpable purpura on legs and buttocks, abdominal pain, GI bleeding, arthralgias, and hematuria. Lesions can begin as erythematous maculopapules. Often occurs in the spring with clustering of cases, often preceded by a viral prodrome. May be recurrent. Lesions usually spare the trunk, fade in several days and are worsened with ambulation. GI symptoms in 40-60%, joint symptoms in 60-80%, nephritis in 20-50% with proteinuria and hematuria. Angioedema of the scalp, eyelids, lips, ears, hands, feet, back, scrotum, and perineum may be seen. RX supportive, referral for long term follow. Complications: GI bleed, intussuception, chronic renal failure, CNS involvement, hepatosplenomegaly.
Rickettsial disease (RMSF)
Febrile illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii (tick bite) seen in spring to early fall in south Atlantic states and Oklahoma. Multisystem manifestations including fever, headache, myalgias and vomiting. Rash erupts on wrists and ankles and involves palms and soles and then the trunk. Starts as pink, blanching macules, then becomes petechial. 15% of cases do not develop the rash. Mortality is > 30% without treatment. Skin biopsy for confirmation of diagnosis. Rx-supportive care, broad-spectrum antibiotics and tetracycline, doxycycline, or chloramphenicol for definitive therapy.
Purpura fulminans is a nonspecific sign of sepsis that appears rapidly and occurs in association with several infections (Group A Strep, Strep pneumo, Staph, RMSF, Meningococcus. Patients are ill appearing and should receive a full sepsis work-up and broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage (ampicillin and gentamycin for infants, ampicillin and ceftriaxone or cefotaxime for older children plus chloramphenicol for very ill patients in whom RMSF is suspected.
Other viral exanthems
Other viruses with associated petechial rash include Herpes Simplex, Epstein-Barr, CMV, Hepatitis, and enteroviruses.
5. Case conclusion
1. Case presentation (Varicella, Impetigo, SSSS)
Varicella Zoster (chicken pox)
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
Hand, foot and mouth disease (Coxsackie infection)
Disease Presentation and Management
Highly contagious viral illness seen in late winter to spring. Patients contagious from 2 days before onset of rash until complete crusting of lesions. Prodrome of fever, headache, malaise. Rash starts on trunk and spreads to face and extremities and is very pruritic. Lesions are in different stages of eruption. Begins as a red papule and becomes a thin walled clear vesicle (dewdrop on rose petal). Then becomes umbilicated and cloudy and ruptures to crust over. Oral and genital mucosa can be involved. Complications: skin infection, encephalitis, Reyes syndrome, pneumonia. Rx: supportive, antipruritics (diphenhydramine or hydroxyzine), cool baths (Aveeno), keep fingernails short to prevent scratching and superinfection, oral Acyclovir if seen within first 24 hours or for siblings, adolescents, immunocompromised individuals.
b. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
A Staph toxin syndrome seen in children under age 5 years where the epidermis is cleaved. Follows a localized S. aureas infection. Rash is diffuse, erythematous with a sandpapery texture and tender with accentuation in the flexural areas. With fever, bullae form and peel off in large sheets. Look for radial fissuring and crusting around the mouth. Children ,may be irritable but not seriously ill. Minor pressure (Nikolsky’s signs) induces peeling. Can be associated with dehydration. Rx- hospitalization and IV antibiotics for extensive cases, otherwise oral antibiotics (dicloxicillin or cephalexin), skin lubrication after skin has started to exfoliate, avoidance of tape. Must differentiate from Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN).
Common contagious skin infection produced by Group A, alpha hemolytic streptococci or staphylococci or both. Bullous (mainly Staph) and nonbullous forms. Typically found on the face and around the nares. Starts as a bulla, pustule or vesicle that collapses and becomes a flat, honey crusted lesion. Commonly confused with Herpes Simplex virus which may precede it. Rx- application of 2% mupirocin ointment TID until lesions have cleared if disease is localized, otherwise 5-10 day course of dicloxicillin or cephalexin.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease
Common contagious viral illness from infection with Coxsackie viruses, strain A16 most common, or enterovirus 71. Associated with fever, malaise, soreness of the oral mucosa. Vesicles are found in the mouth first and easily rupture to become erosions. Skin vesicles erupt 1-2 days later on hands, feet, genitals, buttocks, and skin folds. Rx reassurance, supportive, topical, oral analgesics (magic mouthwash).
e. Herpes Zoster
Can occur in any age patient with a prior Varicella infection. Tingling, itching or pain precedes the eruption of a red papule which evolves into a vesicle. Vesicles coalesce in a dermatomal distribution. Lesions can appear red, purple or gray. Common areas are face, scalp, and torso. Can be disseminated in immunocompromised individuals. Rx pain control, antivirals may shorten course if given early.
4. Case conclusion
1. Case presentation
2. Differential Diagnosis
3.Disease Presentation and Management
Skin manifestation of a Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction which produces significant itching. Significant number of causes: penicillin, sulfa, food allergies, insect bites, viral infections, analgesics, physical factors, chemicals. Lesions are edematous papules and plaques with pink color (wheals). They come and go rapidly. Rx avoidance or withdrawal of precipitant, oral antihistamines (sedating and non-sedating), prednisone or H2 blockers for refractory cases.
4. Case conclusion
Edwards L. Dermatology in Emergency Care. Churchill Livingstone Inc., New York. 1997.
Fleisher GR and Ludwig S (eds.) Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, fourth edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 2000.
Feigin RD and Cherry JD (eds.) Pediatric Infectious Diseases, third edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 1992.
Barkin RM (ed.). Pediatric Emergency Medicine Concepts and Clinical Practice, second edition. Mosby, St. Louis, 1997.
Nelson WE (ed.). Textbook of Pediatrics, 15th edition. W.B. Saunders Company, 1996.
Habif, TP (ed.) Clincal Dermatology A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy, third edition. Mosby, ST. Louis, 1996.
5. Vomiting and Diarrhea
Treat Diarrhea if salmonella <3 months old or bacteremic and <1 y/o or or asplenic
Always treat Shigella or campylobacter
Can Rx E. Coli, but not if O157:H7 as it will make HUS worse
7. Eye and Ear
To examine the relucatant child’s eye, roll them open with Q-Tips
Eye Trauma-dont patch, sub-conjunctival hemorrhage 360°, abnormal pupil shape
Nasal Lacrimal Duct Stenosis
Glaucoma->12mm pupil diameter, >20 on tonometry, 1 eye bigger, epiphora, photophobia, blephorospasm
(everything above the clavicles is Pneumo, H. Flu or B. Catarrhalis
to look in the ears of an infant, put them in a prone position.
<6 months old, give full course of antibiotics
6 months-2 years with certain dx of AOM, give antibiotics
6 months-2 years with uncertain diagnosis, give antibiotics if severe illness otherwise observe, return in 72 hours
>2 years treat only with certain diagnosis and severe illness.
Have patient return in 72 hours if no improvement (Br Med J 322:336, 2001)
ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT IN ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA PROMOTES SUPERINFECTION WITH RESISTANT STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE CARRIED BEFORE INITIATION OF TREATMENT (Dagan, R., et al, J Infect Dis 183(6):880, March 15 2001 )
Perfed Tympanic Membrane-corticosporin or floxin
Posthitis-inflammation of foreskin, soak in water, poor hygiene
Belanitis-inflammation of glans only. Give bactrim, can be STD
Phimosis-cant retract foreskin, send for circumcision
Paraphimosis-cant reduce foreskin, must treat
Testicular Torsion-Prehns sign: if when you raise testicle, it feels better then it is not torsion. Loss of cremasteric reflex is the best test. Affected testicle will be higher. Reduce like opening a book
Torsion of Appendix Testes-blue dot sign, only 1 point of the testicle is painful;
Variocele-bag of worms in scrotum, if it disappears when supine, no big deal
Orchitis/Epididymitis-can be from chlamydia
Vaginitis-can be chemical, Vag discharge is estrogen dependant so normal at less than 1 month from mom or after menarche. Infectious would be strep A or STDs (Chlamydia, candidiasis, gardinella, trichinosis)
9. Surgical Emergencies
Get fingerstick, UA, Icon (if appropriate age and sex). drop the diaper to examine testicles, and look in the throat to avoid missing diagnoses. If patient is a virgin female, can assess adnexa by bimanual rectal exam.
Malrotation with volvulus (One to Two Weeks)
Any infant with bilious vomiting, especially in 1st week of life
double bubble sign on upright x-ray. Absence of ligament of treitz. Bloody stool.
Pyloric Stenosis (One to Two Months)
projectile bilious vomiting from 2-6 months
Examine with the infant on their back, flex their hips 90° to relax abd. May palpate the olive by gently starting palpation with rocking motion below the liver, usually found on the right, just below the Xiphoid. Ultrasound is the test of choice. Will get hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. Must correct pH and electrolytes before the OR.
Intusseseption (One to Two Years)
Classic triad: colicky intermittent abd pain, vomiting, guiac + stools
usually will have lead point such as peyers patches, polyps, or meckels
May have RUQ mass as ileocecal junction is the most common location
Neuro symptoms are associated with this disease and can include weakness, lethargy, and seizures.
Air enema or obstructive series as first test. Can also be seen on UTS.
Appendicitis (Any Age)
can present with diarrhea. Get CBC and UA
Compression graded UTS can be used, but CT is the better test.
In children less than 2 yrs old, symptoms may include cough, grunting, or walking with a limp. (Annals EM 36:39-51, 2000). Diarrhea is present in up to 1/3 of children under 3 y/o with appendicitis (Am J Surg 173:80-82, 1997)
Ask the child how high they can jump, then let them show you to test rebound.
Can have white cells in urine, sometimes even bacteria (J Urol 129:1015, 1988 and Am J Surg 155(2), 1988)
strangulated needs immediate op, incarcerated needs intervention. Umbilical hernias are common, especially in African Americans. Rarely become incarcerated.
Rules of 2. 2% of population. 2 feet proximal to terminal ileum. 2% of people with meckels will have problems. Usually has ectopic gastric mucosal.
Non-Accidental Trauma (NAT)
infants with UTIs may have vomiting and diarrhea
most common cause of abdominal pain in school age kids
10. Child Abuse/Psych Illness
FRACTURES MORE LIKELY TO BE ABUSIVE · Metaphyseal-epiphyseal fractures (i.e., corner, bucket handle, and metaphyseal lucency) · Rib fractures-especially posterior · Fractures in different stages of healing · Fractures inconsistent with history or developmental age of the child · Avulsion fractures of the clavicle or acromion process · Skull-multiple, depressed, bilateral, or across suture lines · Pelvic and spinal fractures without a history of significant force · Femur fractures in a child less than 1 year of age · Fractures with delayed onset of seeking care FRACTURES LESS LIKELY TO BE ABUSIVE · Clavicle fractures · Toddler’s fracture of the tibia · Supracondylar fractures of the humerus · Fractures of the hands and feet · Torus fractures of the long bones · Pelvic or spinal fractures with a history of significant force
Tips on Examination
ask the child what his/her favorite food is, then ask if they would eat some now.
look for smurfs in the ears
have the child jump up and down to test for peritoneal pain.
have kids huff and puff and blow the house down to get good resp effort
or if kid is tiny, push in on their chest to get good exhalation
put baby on belly and elevate their head to stop crying, loud shush mimics sound of uterine arteries
Have child inhale during throat exam to prevent gagging
pant like a dog
Unlike other food allergies, you do not grow out of this one.
Most common food allergy
Need 4 hour observation period secondary to severe recurrence after initial improvement.
(Pediatrics 2002; 109 e20)
can safely use motrin in peds asthmatics and more had exacerbation with APAP
1/3 of children referred for recurrent epistaxis had a diagnosable coagulopathy. Get CBC, PT/PTT, ristocetin cofactor activity. Most common cause of coagulopathy is VWD. (J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2002;24:47-49)
Lancet 360:603 August 24, 2002
BACKGROUND: Accurate temperature measurement is important for clinical decision- making, but can be difficult in children Infrared ear thermometers are currently being used by about two-third of pediatricians and family practice physicians, but their correlation with rectal temperature measurement has not been clearly established.
METHODS: The authors of this British study performed a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that compared rectal temperatures with temperatures measured by infrared ear thermometers. Their meta-analysis included 31 comparisons involving 4,441 children.
RESULTS: Using the rectal temperature as a reference standard, the pooled mean difference (rectal minus infrared ear thermometry) was 0.29C, with 95 confidence intervals that ranged between (-)0.74C to 1.32C. As such, for a measured rectal temperature of 38C temperatures measured by infrared ear thermometry could range between 37.04C and 39.2C. The 95% confidence intervals were wide in comparisons in which the ear device was used in various modes (e.g., rectal actual, core, oral or tympanic). There appeared to be no relationship between the child’s age and differences between rectal and ear temperatures. There was insufficient information to determine the effects of otitis media on this parameter
CONCLUSIONS: In view of the wide range of the 95% confidence intervals in comparisons between rectal temperatures and those measured with infrared ear thermometry in children, the authors conclude that agreement between the two techniques is insufficient to rely upon infrared ear thermometry when precision in the measurement of body temperature is important.
One Tsp or One Tablet can kill a kid:
- 3 Tabs of Codeine
- 5 Tabs of Lomotil
- 5 Tabs of Benadryl
INFANT COLIC: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF THE ABSENCE OF AN ASSOCIATION WITH SOURCE OF EARLY INFANT NUTRITION
Clifford, T.J., et al, Arch Ped Adol Med 156:1123, November 2002
BACKGROUND: It has been estimated that from 5% to 40% of infants develop colic, generally between the second and sixth weeks of life. Infantile colic can be the source of significant parental stress, possibly leading to abusive behavior. Some studies have implicated early infant nutrition as playing a role in the development of colic, but methodologic shortcomings limit the confidence with which these conclusions can be accepted.
METHODS This study, from the University of Western Ontario, examined relationships between early infant feeding (exclusively or partially breast-fed or exclusively formula-fed) and the development of colic during the first six weeks of life. The study included 856 mother-infant pairs. In addition to nutritional source, information was collected regarding maternal anxiety postnatal depression and social support. A diagnosis of colic was based on prospectively completed diary charts and/or retrospectively completed questionnaires.
RESULTS: Colic developed in 23% of exclusively breast-fed infants, 21% of exclusively formula-fed infants, and 29% of breast-fed infants with formula supplementation. On multivariate analysis that adjusted for confounders, there was no apparent relationship between infant nutrition and the development of colic. Development of colic appeared to be possibly related to factors such as the mother’s employment status two months before delivery, maternal anxiety marital status and use of alcohol.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study the development of infantile colic was not related to the source of early infant nutrition.
Must first know patterns of drainage:
Anterior Cervical=mouth, pharynx, upper respiratory tract
Occipital and Posterior Cervical=scalp
Duration of Viral Illnesses
CLINICAL COURSE OF ACUTE INFECTION OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT IN CHILDREN: COHORT STUDY
(Br Med J 327:1088, November 8, 2003)
Clinicians should advise caregivers that more than half of children with an acute viral infection of the upper respiratory tract will be unwell for at least one week, and about one-fourth will be unwell for approximately two weeks. More realistic predictions regarding the course of the illness might promote greater confidence in caregivers and reduce unnecessary repeat visits.
IS THIS CHILD DEHYDRATED? Click here to hear the Reviewer’s comments via MP3. Steiner, M.J., et al, JAMA 291(22):2746, June 9, 2004 BACKGROUND: Several organizations have developed treatment guidelines for pediatric dehydration that are dependent upon clinical classification of dehydration as mild, moderate or severe, but under- or overestimation of the degree of dehydration is common. METHODS: The authors, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, conducted a systematic review of 13 studies (1,246 patients) of the utility of the history, physical exam and laboratory testing for the assessment of dehydration in children aged one month to five years. RESULTS: None of the studies fulfilled criteria for high methodologic quality. Parental reporting of symptoms was not found to be useful. Of eleven clinical findings, the three most useful predictors of 5% dehydration were prolonged capillary refill time (positive likelihood ratio [LR] 4.1), abnormal skin turgor (LR 2.5) and abnormal respiratory pattern (LR 2.0). Low positive LRs and/or wide 95% confidence intervals limited the predictive ability of other clinical findings (sunken eyes, dry mucous membranes, cool extremities, weak pulse, absence of tears, increased heart rate, sunken fontanelle and poor overall appearance). Diagnostic accuracy appears to be improved by the use of combinations of clinical findings or clinical scales. The ability of clinical signs to predict the degree of dehydration is problematic, and agreement between examiners is only fair to moderate. BUN or bicarbonate levels should not be considered definitive evidence of dehydration and are most useful when markedly abnormal, although a normal bicarbonate level reduces the likelihood of dehydration. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the pitfalls of relying on clinical evaluation for the assessment of dehydration in children. The authors favor the WHO approach which advocates use of the physical examination to classify dehydration as “none,” “some” or “severe” as a guide to clinical management. 45 references (firstname.lastname@example.org)
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